Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Book Review: The Snake and the Salamander

by Sara Evangelos
VINS Docent
with Nicole Meyer, Environmental Educator

The Snake and the Salamander: Reptiles and Amphibians from Maine to Virginia
Alvin Breisch
Illustrations by Matt Patterson
Johns Hopkins University Press 2017
Let’s face it: Reptiles and amphibians aren’t at the top of most people’s favorite animals list. Often, says author Alvin Breisch, they’re “treated as second-class citizens.” But Breisch’s new book The Snake and the Salamander could go a long way toward changing that. With engaging, enlightening text, Breisch connects us to the world of “herps”—snakes, turtles, salamanders, lizards, and frogs.

The Snake and the Salamander is part art book, part natural history, part plea for conservation, and is written for readers of any age. Each animal’s page lists common and scientific names, size, and status as endangered or threatened. But if you’re looking for a field guide, this isn’t it. Instead of offering a structured, dry list of facts, Breisch creates a portrait of each animal, exploring aspects of behavior or biology that he considers important. Why is the eastern ratsnake such a good climber? Can a softshell turtle really run 15 miles an hour? Is the American bullfrog an invasive species? How did the eastern fence lizard move to Staten Island? Did you know that the northern leopard frog is the state amphibian of Vermont?

Breisch offers 83 portraits of reptile and amphibian species found in 13 states in the Northeast, from Maine to Virginia. Organized by habitat into nine sections, the book shows us herps in their environments, from Dry Pine Woodlands to Bogs to Wicked Big Puddles—the name for seasonal wetlands, like the vernal pool at VINS. Breisch explains how species have been affected by deforestation and recovery in New England. And he defines scientific concepts in relation to specific animals: How do salamanders and skinks differ? What’s a rattlesnake’s rattle made of? How exactly does a constrictor kill its prey?

Breisch draws on science, history, and popular culture, and offers snippets of his own encounters with herps. He adds plenty of information on biology, genetics, breeding, behavior, and diet. We learn terms like ovoviviparous, fossorial, allopatric, diploids and triploids. Through a portrait of the carpenter frog, we learn about the variety of frog calls and what they communicate. And we discover that the smooth greensnake isn’t even green at all, but a mix of yellow and blue pigments.

Each animal portrait offers insights ranging from the practical—Why is it so hard to tell exactly where those spring peeper calls are coming from?—to the scientific—What’s an obligate species?—to the entertaining—Why doesn’t Linus like queensnakes? We learn that the timber rattlesnake had such a toxic, terrifying reputation that it was chosen to adorn the “Don’t tread on me!” flag during the Revolutionary War. We also learn about the snake’s behavior, breeding, coloration, and history with Native Americans and European settlers.

Matt Patterson’s original color illustrations partner beautifully with the informative text. While photos in a field guide capture one individual—that you might expect to see in the wild, but probably won’t—Patterson’s illustrations are composites, based on many photographs. They show habitat, size, coloration, and reproduction: an eastern box turtle next to a strawberry plant; a red cornsnake swallowing a mouse; a group of adult and young broad-headed skinks; a northern dusky salamander with eggs; male and female painted turtles.

The Snake and the Salamander is full of engaging, fascinating facts presented in the context of habitat, science, and history. You won’t learn everything there is to know about these often misunderstood animals. And you won’t see maps of exactly where to find each species. But getting to know hellbenders and mudpuppies is a great start. And that’s one major benefit of this book: it inspires people to fall in love with reptiles and amphibians, to learn about how and where they live—and to protect them.

Environmentalists know that when people get excited about a single species—say, a Siberian tiger or California condor or blue whale—they want to save that animal’s habitat. During the past 30 years, as we’ve learned more about reptiles and amphibians, their reputation has improved. But there’s a long way to go. By making herps come alive, The Snake and the Salamander encourages us to protect these extraordinary animals.

About the Author and Illustrator
Alvin R. Breisch, a collaborator with the Roosevelt Wild Life Station, was amphibian and reptile specialist and director of the Amphibian and Reptile Atlas Project for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation until he retired in 2009. He coauthored The Amphibians and Reptiles of New York State: Identification, Natural History, and Conservation. Matt Patterson illustrated Freshwater Fish of the Northeast, which won the 2010 National Outdoor Book Award in the category of Design and Artistic Merit.

Monday, June 26, 2017

The Yearly Cycle: Vernal Pools

by Anna Autilio
Environmental Educator

Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum)
One of the most beautiful natural illustrations of the cycle of the year is found in the vernal pool. Often called “ephemeral”, these pools provide crucial, temporary homes for some distinct wild plant and animal species. Filling in the spring and drying in the summer, they track the changing temperatures and weather patterns without fail, year after year, for those who care to find them and peek inside!

The vernal pool at VINS went through a wet year in 2016-2017. Although it dried up in the summer, it filled again in the fall, and stayed filled through our warm yet snowy winter. A large snapping turtle even hibernated in the muddy bottom—she was seen catching some rays on an unusually warm December day.

Spring (May 2016)

Summer (July 2016)
Fall (October 2016)
Winter (December 2016)
Just this spring, the pool hosted some more diverse visitors, including another large snapping turtle to join the one who stayed the winter, a green frog (unusual at a vernal pool), several wood frogs, and even a pair of mallards and a barred owl, who were no doubt using the pool as a hunting spot.

At this time of year, the snapping turtle residents of our vernal pool have made their way uphill to lay eggs in specially dug burrows, sometimes quite far from the water. VINS has currently 6 different snapping turtle nests, which may contain each up to 50 eggs! These will hatch in September, and we will be on the look out for the tiny turtles making their way back downhill to the water.

Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina)

If you are interested in learning more about vernal pools, and even helping scientists track them down, the Vermont Vernal Pool Mapping Project is for you! Run by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies and Arrowwood Environmental, this project aims to map the locations of all vernal pools in the state of Vermont. Almost 5,000 pools have already been mapped, but citizen scientists are still needed to confirm the location of potential pools, and identify the animals and plants species living within. Follow the link below to learn more: